Every business organization shares at least one common feature: Human resources.

Human resources are sets of people who make a significant portion of a business workforce. The management of human resources is called human resource management.

More appropriately, human resource management is the management function concerned with the utilization of the organization's most important resource (human resource) towards achieving organizational goals.

Meaning of human resource management (HRM)

Human resource management is the branch of management concerned with planning, recruiting, motivating, maintaining people in an organization. It is people-focused and also individual-oriented.

By Individual-oriented, we mean that human resource management treats each employee as an individual and offer services and solutions to meet the individual needs

The main purpose of human resource management is to achieve organizational success through the people ( or human resources).

Scope Of Human Resource Management

The scope of human resources is indeed broad. It includes "everything and anything" relating to the working life of employees. It includes the following:

1. Human resource planning: This is concerned with analyzing and identifying the type of employees that an organization would require to achieve its goal. 

Human resource planning ensures that the organization has the right people at the right time at the right people and in the right quantity.

2. Recruitment and selection: Recruitment is the process by which an organization acquires applicants for potential employment. 

Selection is the process by which an organization chooses from several applicants the one most suited for the job.

Recruitment and selection involve every activity that ensures that employees are adequately matched with the jobs best suited for them.

3. Training and development: with the fast-changing pace of technology, workers need to be trained on how to effect this new technology. 

Training and development represent a coherent and organized attempt by an organization to improve employees' performance. 

4. Compensation and benefit: This concerned the area of pay, benefits, and non-financial rewards. 

Compensation and benefits are concerned with ensuring that employee compensation is fixed in such a way that it promotes fairness and equity.

5. Performance appraisal: Employing workers is not enough. From time to time, the overall contribution of the workers to the company should be reviewed. This is called performance appraisal.

At the risk of oversimplifying, Performance appraisal is a way of evaluating an employee's performance. It is a means of evaluating the efficiency, contribution, weakness, and strength of a worker.

6. Employee assistance:  This area involves assisting employees in a way that stimulates a positive employer-employee relationship while maintaining a profit. 

Employee assistance is necessary because employees are unique in their behaviour, personality, and expectation. Hence, employee assistance provides counselling and solution to employees' problems that may be affecting their productivity.

7. Union/labour relation: This is concerned with ensuring that there is a healthy relationship between the employee/union and the organization. It involves all activities that ensure that there is industrial peace in the organization.

Union management, conflict management are some of the activities of Human resource management relating to union/labour relations.

A healthy union-organizational relationship is necessary if the company is to successfully achieve its goals. Otherwise, the organization will face a large-scale "strike lockout".

Objectives Of Human Resources Management

1. Societal objectives: Human resource management seeks to ensure that the organization is socially liable to society's legal and ethical needs.

Such needs include equal pay for equal work, woman empowerment, generating employment opportunities for members of the society.

Failure of the organization to use its resources to satisfy these social needs may lead to restriction and sanctions.

2. Organizational objectives: This objective recognizes the role of human resource management in achieving efficiency and effectiveness in the organization.

The organization's objective of human resource management is captured in this phrase: "ensure that the right people are in the right job and at the right quantity to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the organization".

3. Personnel objectives: Human resources management seeks to assist employees in achieving their personal goals to get their commitment. 

If this personal goal of employees is met, retaining and motivating such workers will be easily achieved.

4. Functional objectives: If there is an excess or shortage of human resources, the resources of the organization will be wasted. 

As a result, human resources management ensures human resources are adequately managed to suit the organization's requirements for human resources.

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Voila! We have just discussed human resources management. For a recap, human resources management is the effective and efficient utilization of an organization's human resources towards achieving a goal.

I also told you that there are 7 major scopes of human resource management. These are Human resource planning, recruitment, and selection, training and development, compensation and benefit, performance appraisal, union/labour relation, employee assistance.

Finally, I also told you that there are four objectives of human resources management: societal, functional, organizational, personal objectives.

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