MANAGEMENT AS A DISCIPLINE, PROCESS, PROFESSION, AND BODY OF INDIVIDUALS

Because management is a common word, it has been interpreted differently for different purposes. It has been interpreted as:

1. A Process

2. A Body of individuals

3. A discipline

4. A profession.

We will be exploring the various interpretation of management in this post. so, do well to stick around.

Management As A Process

As a process, management consists of a series of activities that must be done to achieve a goal. As a process, management consists of four activities.

1. Planning: This entails establishing objectives and selecting the best course of action to accomplish those objectives.

You will learn more about planning here 

2. Organizing: This entails determining the work to be done and determining how the work will be distributed among the various resources of the organization to meet the objectives of the organization. 

If you are not yet familiar with organizing, refer to this post

3. Leading: Planning and organizing resources is not enough, managers have to lead. leading entails influencing and motivating employees towards achieving organizational goals.

4. Controlling: After goals have been determined in the planning step, resources mobilized in the organizing stage, and workers inspired in the leading stage, the current performance must be compared to the planned objective. This is called Controlling. It entails determining whether actual work conforms with plans and, if not, taking corrective action to correct the deviations.   

Accordingly, Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are collectively called the process of management. 

Management As A Discipline

Discipline, in a specific sense, refers to an independent branch of knowledge. Government, physics, chemistry, mathematics, etc are examples of disciplines. 

As you might imagine, management is also a discipline.

As a discipline, management involves the study of principles and methodologies required to carry out fundamental administration and as well as the ethics that managers must adhere to to do their duties efficiently and effectively.

As a discipline, Management is a course of study that is systematically taught in institutes and universities presently.

A person can work as a manager after completing the required course or by obtaining a certification in management.

Experts and practitioners in the field of management have contributed to the development of the body of knowledge in management.

Henry Fayol and F.W. Taylor, for example, proposed several management principles to make management more systematic and scientific in practice. 

According to Taylor's Scientific Management principles, managers should use scientific methods to solve business challenges rather than traditional ways. Henry Fayol also outlined fourteen management principles

As management knowledge expands and systematic thinking on management develops, management as a discipline is expected to become more scientific. 

Management As A Body Of Individuals

This is probably the common use of the word "management". Managers (not managers) are sometimes referred to collectively as "management" since they fulfil their functions in a group. 

The effectiveness and efficiency of not just one, but several managers are critical to a company's success.

They must work together as a team to fulfil the business's overall objectives. It will, therefore, be a ''boo-boo'' to relate the "management'' to a single manager. 

It is pertinent to mention here that there are several levels of management based on the nature of the jobs to be done.

Management As A Profession

According to Wikiversity, A profession is a well-defined body of knowledge that is learned intellectually, and with an organizational sense.

Any occupation that wants to be labelled a profession must have the following characteristics.

  1. A systematized body of knowledge
  2. Have a representative professional association
  3. Have an Educational institute or training school where this specialized knowledge can be acquired.
  4. Have a specified code of conduct that guides the behaviour of  Professional

Management fulfils all the requirements First, It has a specialized body of knowledge. Secondly, it has a recognized body of professional conduct. For example, Nigeria's professional management body is the Nigeria Institute of Management (Chartered).

Thirdly, management also has an educational institute where it can be acquired.

For example, management has a training institute where it can be obtained. It is possible to obtain it at a university. 

Finally, management has a well-defined code of behaviour. In Nigeria, for example, all chartered managers are required to adhere to the Nigeria Institute of Management's code of conduct. 

However, management has not yet developed fully as a profession like the professions of law, medicine, etc.

This is due to a lack of uniformity in the formal qualifications of managers.

Furthermore, the code of conduct does not bind to all managers because not all managers are professional.

That is it for now. Got questions relating to this post? Do well to ask our telegram community

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