Often, organizations lack the necessary manpower for a particular job. Hence, they recruit externally.

External recruitment is simply the recruiting of people who are external to the organization.

In other words, external recruitment means recruiting from sources outside the organization.

External recruitment can be done in a variety, including:

1. Employment exchanges: Employment exchanges serve as a link between job seekers and employers looking to fill open positions.

Employment exchanges are offices where information on job seekers, such as their qualifications, experience, and identity, is maintained and provided to firms who are hiring.

Typically, job seekers will leave their biodata with the employee exchange, who will contact them if suitable work opportunities become available.

Government and private employee exchanges are the two types of employment exchanges.

Private employee exchanges charge a commission, but government employment exchanges do not.

Unskilled, semi-skilled, and skilled professionals can and have all benefited from employment exchanges.

2. Direct recruitment: This is an external source of recruitment where the organization hires qualified candidates by posting a notice about the available jobs on the notice board or at the factory gate.

Here, every day, a huge number of unemployed people gather at the gate of big factories

Whenever there is a vacancy in the company. The HR managers will evaluate the people at the factory gate and recruit the number of people needed.

As a result, direct recruitment is also called Factory gate recruitment.

Factory gate recruitment is most suitable for filling casual vacancies, which required unskilled or semi-workers.

Most people recruited through factory gates are paid daily wages.

3. Advertisement: This is the most widely used method of recruitment because of its ability to reach a large number of people

In advertising, information about the job vacancies as well as the job specification and descriptions are provided in the form of print and media advertisements.

This allows potential candidates to evaluate before applying for such positions.

One advantage of advertising is that it expands the organization's recruitment options by informing candidates from various regions of the country about job openings.

4. Casual callers: Even when the organization does not have any job openings, qualified candidates frequently apply for job openings on their own through email or by filling out forms.

These qualified candidates are called casual callers. 

More appropriately, casual callers can be defined as job seekers who apply for jobs casually even when there are no job vacancies in the organization.

Because casual callers apply for employment even when there are no job vacancies, they are also called Unsolicited applications.

For most organizations, Casual callers are a useful source of recruitment because organizations maintain a comprehensive list of unsolicited applications along with their contact information.

When vacancies arise, the organization contacts these unsolicited applicants and persuades them to apply for the jobs available.

This form of recruitment is very economical, as it does not require any form of advertising. 

5. Campus recruitment: If you are a university student, you would probably have an idea of campus recruitment.

Campus recruitment is a recruitment method where recruiters are sent to various educational institutes and universities for the sole purpose of recruiting students nearing completion of their studies.

To achieve their purpose, recruiters partner or liaise with educational institutions (such as universities, and colleges), who may recommend suitable candidates that the recruiters can recruit.

6. Professional bodies: Sometimes, organizations do headhunt for senior personnel through professional bodies.

for example, a company that wants to employ a human resource manager may approach the Chartered Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria. 

The CIPM would then recommend candidates (members) based on certain criteria such as trust, competence, etc.

7. Employment agencies: These are organizations that connect employer and employee. In other words, employment agencies find employers or employees for those seeking them.

These employment agencies may be publicly or privately owned and they are often contracted to find personnel for other organizations.

Advantages Of External Recruitment

1. Reduces inbreeding: It injects fresh blood and innovations into the organization, thereby reducing cases of inbreeding.

2. Better recruitment: The organization has a better chance of recruiting the right candidates because its options are not limited to existing staff as is the case with internal recruitment.

3. Gives the organization competitive ideas: Recruiting externally can provide companies with ideas from competitors. This is especially true if the new hires have previously worked for a competitor.

Disadvantages Of External Recruitment 

1. Demotivates existing employees: External recruitment may demotivate current employees, especially if they feel they are deserving of the position.

2. Very expensive: This type of recruitment is very costly because the organization has to pay for job advertisements, conduct job interviews, and train individuals who are recruited.

3. Time-consuming: In addition to being costly, external recruitment is also time-consuming. 

This is because, before an organization can recruit externally, it must first post job advertisements and organize interviews.

You will agree with me that all of these involve a series of processes, making external recruitment more time-consuming than internal recruitment.


4. Possibility of maladjustment: External recruitment may create maladjustment, which is a situation whereby new employees are unable to successfully adjust to the demands of their new jobs.

In such cases, the maladjusted employee may resign or be fired by the management of the organization.

In either case, maladjustment rarely augurs well with business activities.

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