In my previous post, I told you that management is a process. These processes consist of different activities collectively known as management functions.

French industrialist by the name of Henry Fayol proposed five functions: Planning, controlling, commanding, organizing, and coordinating.

However, Today, these five management function has been condensed to just four functions, which are planning, organizing, leading and controlling. 


This is the systematic process of setting the strategies, objectives, goals as well as tactics to be pursued by the organization.

It is concerned with identifying organizational goals and determining the best course of action to achieve these goals. It involves setting goals and developing strategies for these goals.

In the planning stage, managers create an action plan detailing all the activities needed to achieve the organizational goal.

The action plan will contain what is to be done, how it should be done, and when it should be done.

It involves setting goals and deciding on the course of action to be taken to achieve the organizational goal and objectives.

As a function, planning is usually done by top-level management. However, each level of management incorporates some form of planning which is grouped into:

1. Strategic planning: These are usually long-term plans created by the top or administrative management. It includes creating a mission statement, vision statement, and strategic objectives

2. Tactical planning: This is usually done by middle-level management and may range from 6 months to years''. 

3. Operational planning: This done by first-line or lower management and is usually lasts for a short period. They usually range from 30 days to 6 month


After planning has been done and the course of action to be taken has been decided, the resources of the organization have to be distributed and organized in a way that maximizes goal attainment.

This is called organizing. More formally, Organizing is the organizational function of management concerned with identifying tasks to be done and assigning tasks among the various resources of the organization.

It is concerned with determining the structure of the organization. Activities such as creating departments and delegating responsibility and tasks to different people in the organization are all considered organizing functions. 

In short, organizing involves creating the organizational structure or hierarchy of the business


Once the task has been assigned to people, some form of leading is required to achieve this goal.

Leading is the management function concerned with directing, motivating, and influencing human resources toward achieving organizational goals.

It involves using influence to motivate the human resources of an organization towards the attainment organization's goal.

It is kind of interpersonal in that it involves connecting and interacting with employees. That is, the managers are seeking the commitment of employees in the pursuit of organizational goals


Periodically, managers evaluate the team's current performance to see if there are going according to plan. This is known as control. 

The controlling function of management is concerned with monitoring, evaluating and comparing, and correcting work performance.

In controlling, managers compare the organization's actual performance against key performance indicators to see if everything is going according to plan. That is, the performance of the organization is set against its goals. 

If deviations are noticed, The managers take corrective measures. This corrective measure may be instilling new discipline, adjusting the whole management process to be more efficient and effective, etc.

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