RECRUITMENT – MEANING, NEEDS, PURPOSE, FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT

Recruitment is the overall process of finding and attracting the most suitable candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization.

It is the process of locating, inducing, attracting and getting prospective applicants to apply for existing job openings.  

Recruitment is an important function of human resource management because it plays an important role in the survival and growth of the business.

It is considered a linking activity bringing those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs together.

As you will see in subsequent posts,  recruitment can be done internally or externally.

Need for recruitment

The need for recruitment may arise due to the following:

1. Job vacancy created by transfers.

2. Job vacancy created by promotion

3. Job vacancy created by the retirement or death of a worker

4. Vacancies due to diversification, growth and expansion in business operation.

Purpose Of Recruitment

1. It increases the organization's pool of human resources.

2. It attracts and encourages candidates to apply for open positions in a company.

3. It helps increase the success rate of the selection process.

4. Encourages unqualified applicants to self-select themselves out of the process, thus, enabling the selection of the right candidate for the right job as per the organization's needs.

Factors Affecting Recruitment

As an important function of human resources management, recruitment is directly affected by various factors. These factors are divided into internal factors and external factors.

Internal Factors

These are factors that can be easily controlled by the business. They exist within the organization and they can affect recruitment. 

Because this factor exists within the organization, there are also called endogenous factors

Internal factors that can affect recruitment include:

1. Recruitment policy: This is a statement or framework that outlines the organization's recruitment practices and objectives.

This affects recruitment because it determines whether the organization recruits internally or externally, as well as the method that must be followed to do so.

2. Size of the organization: The recruitment process is also influenced by the size of the organization.

Research has shown that Larger organizations are more likely to follow due process in recruitment than smaller organizations.

3. Public image of the organization: An organization's public image also has an impact on its recruitment process.

An organization with a positive public image is more likely to attract and recruit qualified candidates than one with a negative public image.

External Factors

These are factors that cannot be easily controlled by the business. They are external to the organization but affect recruitment

Because this factor is outside the organization, there are also called exogenous factors.

External factors that affect recruitment are:

1. Labour market: The demand and supply of labour also affect recruitment.

For example, If the demand for clerks exceeds the supply, an organization in need of clerks will have to rely on internal recruitment because hiring clerks will be difficult.

By the same reasoning, if the supply of clerks exceeds the demand, an organization may recruit externally because such clerks are relatively easy to recruit.

2. Legal environment: Laws such as labour laws have a huge effect on an organizational recruitment process.

For many jobs, these laws dictate the safety, compensation as well as working conditions under which a company hires and recruits new employees.

3. Unemployment situation: Unemployment is a condition in which people who are without jobs are actively seeking jobs.

When there are a lot of individuals looking for jobs, it's easier hiring people. Conversely, if there are a few individuals unemployed, recruiting people becomes difficult.

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4. Recruitment policy of competitors: A company's recruitment process is not only determined by its recruitment policy but also is not affected by the recruitment policy of competitors.

Often, companies change their recruitment policies to match or exceed that of competitors to remain competitive.

This ensures that the companies attract the right employee.

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