Once the organization's recruiting drive has attracted the right number of job candidates, the next thing the organization does is to evaluate the candidates and choose the one with the best prospects.

This is called selection. Selection can be defined as the systematic process of choosing the right candidates with the necessary qualification from a pool of job applicants.

It is the process whereby the most suitable candidate is chosen to fill up vacant positions from among the pool of prospective candidates developed at the recruitment stage.

Selection is the process of matching the right individual with the right job.

The main goal of selection is to use a variety of strategies to compare the job requirement to the candidate's knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA).

By doing this, Selection aims to gather information from applicants to anticipate their work success, and then hire the individual who is more likely to succeed.

A good selection process will ensure that the company chooses the right people for the right job with the right mindset.

It is worth noting that selection is a negative process because the number of rejected applicants is generally greater than the number of selected applicants.

Importance Of Selection

1. It is a means of eliminating candidates who are lacking in skills because only candidates who are suitable for the job are chosen in the selection process.

2. Since selection is concerned with choosing the right person for the right job, it helps reduce the rate of labour turnover.

Labour turnover rate is the rate at which people leave an organization and are replaced by another employee.

Choosing the right candidates, Selection help reduce labour turnover because people who are working in the right job are more likely to stay in the organization 

3. Because their suitability for the job has already been proven through the selection phase, workers properly selected required less training.

4. Since the properly selected employee does not require much training, it saves time and money that would have been expended on training employees.

Differences Between Recruitment And Selection

Recruitment and selection are two words that are used interchangeably in our world today. However, both terms have marked differences. Let's look at some of them.

1. Recruitment is concerned with attracting job seekers to apply for open positions, whereas selection is concerned with choosing the best candidates from among those that applied.

2. Recruitment is done before selection.

3. Recruitment is a positive process in that it involves attracting as many people to apply for a job position whereas selection is referred to as a negative process since it involves eliminating as many individuals as possible to find the best candidate for the jobs.

4. Recruitment is a simple process as applicants are only asked to fill out prescribed forms.

In contrast, Selection is a complex process as applicants must go through several stages or procedures before receiving a job offer.

5. The result of recruitment is the pool of applications whereas the result of selection is the offered job.

8 Conventional Procedures For Selection

1. Receiving application: After the job opening has been posted, candidates can apply for the job by sending their applications to the organization. 

This application will provide interviewers with bio-data, work experience, and relevant information about the applicants.

This gives the interviewer a preliminary idea about the applicants.

2. Screening of candidates: once the organization has received the application, it has to screen the application.

In this stage, the organization removes individuals who do not meet the application's minimum requirements.

This ensures that the organization do not incur unnecessary expenses processing the candidate through the remaining procedures in the selection process.

3. Employment test: To determine the suitability of applicants, the organization carried out an employment test.

An employment test is the means of determining the suitability and ability of the job applicant.

Through employment tests, the mental and physical abilities of the applicants are determined.

Various employment tests are used, namely: Aptitude test, intelligence test, personality test, interest test and proficiency test.

A. Aptitude test: This assesses a candidate's ability to learn the skills needed to perform a job efficiently and effectively.

This is designed to test an applicant's ability to succeed in his new job if given adequate training.

B. Intelligence test: As its name suggests, this evaluates the mental capacity of an applicant.

It evaluates the ability of an individual to understand instructions and make critical decisions.

Intelligence tests are designed to test an applicant's capacity to solve complex problems and perform intellectual tasks.

It measures an applicant's alertness in terms of comprehension, reasoning and memory, etc.

C. Personality test: This is a general assessment of an applicant's personality, including temperament, attitudes, emotional reactions, and value system.

This test is designed to assess an individual's emotional state as well as his personality traits.

Personality tests have to be designed and implemented with utmost care because it provides a clue about the emotional balance, maturity and value system of a person. 

D. Proficiency test: This assesses the level of proficiency and knowledge acquired by an individual. 

Its purpose is to assess the skills, knowledge and abilities already acquired by individuals.

E. Interest test: A person's interest in a job or task affects their performance on the job since a person whose interests are aligned with the job will likely do better than someone whose interests are not aligned with the job.

As a result, the interest test is critical. Interest tests are used to determine a person's area of interest and the type of work that corresponds to that interest.

Interest tests are typically used to determine a person's interest in or involvement in a specific job

4. Interview: This is a conversation between the job applicant and the organization representative that is undertaken to determine whether or not the applicant should be hired.

It is a formal conversation conducted to evaluate a candidate's suitability for a particular job.

An interview reveals information about the applicant's friendliness and ability to communicate verbally.

It also allows the organizations to ask candidates questions about the job, as well as provide further details about the job.

5. Background and reference check: In this stage, the organization examines the applicant's application form to determine whether it is valid and accurate.

One way of achieving this is to do what is commonly called reference checks.

Through the reference check, the organization obtains information about the applicant's abilities and confirms the verisimilitude of information provided on the applicant's application form.

6. Medical examination: Before being offered employment, organizations usually ask potential employees to take necessary medical tests.

The medical examination is used to determine if an individual is physically and mentally fit for the job. The job offer is usually dependent on passing this examination.


7. Job offer: Once the applicant has passed the preceding test, he is offered a letter of employment by the organization.

If he accepts the offer, then a contract between him and the organization is drawn and signed by both parties. 

8. Contract of employment: This is a written document specifying the duties, responsibilities and job title of the employee.

The contract of employment usually specified the date of employment, pay rate, working hours, allowances and other terms and conditions of the employment.

Thr contract of employment has to be signed by both the employer and the employee to ensure its validity.

It is only after the contract of employment is signed by both parties that the selection process is said to be complete.

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