10 FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT

, The word "government" has several meanings. 

In its most popular usage, it refers to the system of managing and governing the affairs of large political units such as a nation or state.

The government can also be defined as the body that represents the state.

It can also be referred to as a group of persons or institutions in charge of making and enforcing the law in a state. 

Generally, Government has some unique features and consists of the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary

Furthermore, they are different forms of government such as democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, theocracy, and so on

Functions Of Government

1. Regulates human behaviour and social interactions: Government provides laws that are essential for regulating the behaviour of every member of society.

2. Government protects the right of its citizen: As a citizen of a country, you have some fundamental rights.

These include the rights to life, liberty, property, etc. In most states, these are protected by the government authorities such as the court, the police, and the public compliant commission.

3. It maintains law and order: This is, by far, the most important function of government. 

The government, as the custodian of state powers, is in a better position to ensure law and order in society.

Maintaining law and order is about ensuring that there is internal peace (or peace among citizens) in a state.

It is for this purpose that government usually establishes the police to carry out this duty effectively.

4. Make law: The government or more precisely, the legislature is tasked with the responsibility of making g law that is necessary for the smooth operation of the society

Asides from making law, the government implement policies such as monetary policies which are necessary for the proper operation of the economy.

5. It provides social amenities: one macroeconomic goal of government is to attain economic development and one way to do so is to provide social amenities.

The government does exactly that by providing basic infrastructural services such as water, electricity, good roads, railway, and power, all of which are necessary for societal and economic development.

Furthermore, the government also provide public goods and services to improve the standard of living of its citizens.

6. Protect the state against foreign aggression: Since the dawn of civilization, we have seen nations being at odds with one another. 

As a result, every nation is vulnerable to foreign attack in some way.

As the custodian of state powers, the government ensures that the state is free of external aggression.

This is easily achieved through the armed force comprising the army, navy, and air force.

7. It carries out external relations: Because no state is an island unto itself, there is a need to interface with foreign entities on matters of national interest.

The government performs this function, on behalf, of the state by interacting with other states on the international stage.

Government usually carry out external relation to maintain foreign diplomacy.

8. Promote the general welfare of the society: The government is expected to utilize all human and material resources inside and outside its territory to promote the general welfare of citizens.

This may involve the provisions of social welfare services to the poor through the social welfare programs of the government

Social welfare programs ( or public assistance programs ) are government programs aimed at providing support to the poor, indigent persons, and other people who may not be able to cater for themselves due to one reason or the other.

9. Government conduct elections: Citizens of a country have the right to vote and be voted for, which is a fundamental human right.

To ensure that this right is truly exercised by citizens of a country, the government has the responsibility of conducting periodic free and fair elections.

This ensures that there is a smooth transfer of government.

Also, election serves as a means of accountability because leaders who do not perform well can be removed.

10. Law adjudication: This is another function performed by the government.

Through one of its arms judiciary, the government can administer justice and adjudicate laws made by the legislature.

However, to encourage justice administration, it is expected that:

  • Every citizen should be treated equally before the law.
  • Every citizen should be given the opportunity of obtaining the right judgement from the court of law.

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