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A monarchy is a form of government ruled by a king, queen, and emperor. 

It is a form of government in which one individual, who has undivided sovereignty, rules for the entirety of his or her life.

Monarchy is the oldest form of government, with authority typically passed down down the generations. Examples of monarchies are UK, Saudi Arabia, Morocco.

There are two major types of monarchy namely, absolute and constitutional monarchy. 

1. Absolute monarchy: As its name seems to suggest, this kind of monarchy is absolute. That is, the power of the monarch is not restrained by any law, court, and sanction. 

Absolute monarchy is usually hereditary as power is passed down the generation. Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy.

Because absolute monarchies do not exactly follow the tenets of democracy, there are also called undemocratic democracy.

2. Constitutional monarchy: This is a type of monarchy in which the power of the monarchy is restricted by the constitution. 

In a constitutional monarchy, the monarch usually ruled together with a constituted organized government called a parliament. United Kingdom (UK), Canada are all constitutional monarchies.

Because parliament is usually present in this type of monarchy, constitutional monarchy is also called parliamentary monarchy, democratic monarchy, or liberal monarchy

Difference Between Absolute And Constitutional Monarchy

1. A constitutional monarch is legally bounded by the constitution whereas an absolute monarch is not legally bounded by the constitution.

2. In an absolute monarchy, the monarch sets economic and foreign affairs policies for the country whereas the parliament or any other constituted government makes economic and foreign affairs policies in a constitutional monarchy.

3. Prime minister is not a feature of absolute monarchy. However, in a constitutional monarchy, there is the presence of a prime minister or its equivalent. 

4. An absolute monarch is usually a powerful leader whereas a constitutional monarch usually plays the role of figurehead.

Features Of Monarchy

1. Ruled by a monarch: A monarchy is a government ruled by a monarch such as King, Queen or emperor.

2. Mode of succession: Monarchs are not usually elected. Rather, monarchs usually gained power through hereditary succession as power is passed down through a succession line linked by bloodline and birth order.

3. Sovereignty: The ultimate power to make law rest generally rest on the monarch. For this reason, he is consider the sovereignty of the state

4. Religious: Most monarchs are devout followers of the country's most dominant religion. 

For example, Saudi Arabia's King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Morocco's Mohammed Vi, are all Muslim, which is their country's major religious group.

5. Term limits: Unlike most politicians that have term limits, monarchs do not have term limits. They rule until death or abdication.

Advantages Of Monarchy

1. Smother transfer of power: The transfer of power between Donald Trump and Joe Biden created a lot of protests, counter-protest and societal violence. 

However, in a monarchy, it is rare to see such things happen as power is passed down through a succession line linked by bloodline and birth order.

Even if the monarch decides to step down, a successor will be named who will take over from the monarch immediately. 

As a result, there is less societal uncertainty, which decreases power transition hiccups.

Furthermore, fewer transfers of power take place in monarchies as compared to other forms of government. Hence, the transfer of power hiccups that is common with most democracies is greatly reduced in monarchies.

2. Reduces unhealthy political division: We saw a lot of political squabbling and divisiveness among Americans throughout the Trump and Biden campaigns. 

Though constitutional monarchy allows for periodic election, Such political squabbling is, however, reduced in monarchy as other constitutional organized governments in the state must work in line with the agendas of the monarch.

3. Highly efficient: The cost of the 2020 US election is estimated to be $14 billion. That's just the cost of Election alone!  We haven't factored in the expense of new automobiles, furniture, and fittings that the new political office holder will purchase.

In a monarchy, this scenario is extremely uncommon because the head of state changes so infrequently. 

By avoiding these costs, Monarchy ensures that such funds are channelled into other sectors of the economy that would contribute massively to the economic development of the state. 

4. Quick decisions are taken: Most democracies have large bureaucracies through which decisions must pass before they are approved. 

This is not a characteristic of monarchies, particularly absolute monarchies in which the monarch has significant decision-making authority. 

As a result, monarchy is better suited to emergencies than other forms of government because decisions are taken quickly.

5. Allows for consistency: On the 4th of November, 2020, The United States withdrew from the Paris Agreement. The United States rejoined the pact less than 5 months later, following a new change of government. This is one of the inconsistencies associated with a change of government.

In most monarchies, the monarch can govern until his death, maintaining continuity in home and foreign policy direction. 

Even if the king dies, the hereditary system of succession ensures that policy formation and direction remains unchanged because the successor is already familiar with the government's objectives and agendas.

6. Relatively stable: Monarchy is one of the most stable forms of administration since succession is hereditary, and once a monarch ascends to the throne, he or she cannot be ousted from power through impeachment or a vote of no confidence.

Disadvantages Of Monarchy

1. Kids monarch: Because monarchs are typically passed down through generations, even small children can become rulers. 

For example, King Oyo of Uganda ascended to the throne in just three years. Jehoash was seven years old when he began to rule Judah, according to the Bible.

In a democracy, such an instance of children becoming kings is uncommon because the president or leader is legitimately elected.

2. Human rights violation: Because monarchs are not democratically elected and cannot be easily removed from office, they frequently violate human rights in the name of religion. 

For example, In Saudi Arabia, women and girls continued to face discrimination in law and practice in relation to marriage, divorce and inheritance. This is also a common occurrence in most monarchies. One exception to this is the UK.

3. Despotic and tyranny tendencies: Because monarchy system of government does not accommodate the doctrine of checks and balance. 

Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei, for example, is known for his despotic practices such as arbitrary detentions, freedom of speech and press, and labour rights violations etc.  He even went further to alter the Brunei constitution, declaring himself infallible. 

4. Not accountable: If a monarch turns out to be inefficient and a bad leader,  he cannot be held accountable through court order or election, as may be done in a democratic system.

5. Inflexible change of leadership: In 2020, Donald Trump was voted out of office and replaced by a new president. In a monarchy, however, this is not the case. 

Even if the monarch is a bad leader, It is believed that the "monarch was put there by God to punished the people and it is unlawful to shake off the burden that God has laid upon a country''

6. Incompetence leader: The hereditary succession meant that just anyone can become the leader as long as he is linked to the bloodline. 

This could result in the emergence of an incompetent leadership as the successor may lack the adequate skills, qualifications and knowledge to rule effectively.

7. Undemocratic in nature: Monarchy is undemocratic in nature and practice. The process of ascension to the office is hereditary rather than election.

That's not all! In most monarchies, there is little or no separation of power, and there are no checks and balances.

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Monarchy has both advantages and disadvantages as a type of government. It is best suited as a form of government for countries with a fusion of power.

However, in order to avoid degeneration into tyranny, the monarch's power must be checked consistently.

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