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Job analysis is defined as the systematic process of gathering, collecting, analyzing, setting out information about the contents of a job as well as the skill requirement needed to do the job effectively.

It is the process of examining, exploration, studying, and recording of the skill, responsibilities, knowledge, duties, and ability requirements of a job.

Job analysis can also be defined as the methodical process of collecting data on relevant aspects of a job to identify the nature, component, characteristics, and condition under which it is performed effectively.

To Bayers and Rue, "Job analysis is the process of determining and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job.

Through job analysis, a manager can learn what the work's most significant responsibilities are, how they're carried out, and what human attributes are required to execute the job successfully.

Overall, Job analysis produces the following information about a job:

1. Details of the duties in a job

2. Supervisory responsibilities of a job

3. Educational requirement and experience

4. Equipment and tools to be used

5. Physical and mental demands of the job

6. Working conditions

7. Risk and hazards associated with the job.

8. Qualification standards. That is, the minimum knowledge, skills and experience required for performing a job. 

Furthermore, the end-products of job analysis are job description and job specification

A job description, as its name suggests, is simply a written description of a job

It can also be defined as a written statement of the duties, activities, and requirements of a specific job.

It is essentially a statement describing a job in terms of its title, purpose, location, working conditions, equipment to be used, and hazards involved.

A job description generally includes a general description of the job to be performed along with the duties, function and responsibilities.

A job specification (or employee specification), on the other hand, states the attributes that a job holder must possess to do the work effectively. 

It is the process of interpreting a job description in terms of the type of person who would be a good fit for the job.

It is a written statement of qualities and skills sought in applicants for a given job.

Job specification usually spells out the knowledge, skills, education, experience sought in a job holder.

The job specification aids managers in selecting the right candidate for the right job, and it acts as the foundation for the selection process.

Methods Of Job Analysis

There are three methods through which job analysis data are obtained which are explained below

1. Interviews: This is the method by which managers collect information from job holders through face-to-face conversations.

The purpose of the interview is to learn important details about the position, such as the job title, organizational details, and the responsibilities that the job holder would be responsible for, among other things.

The advantages of interviews are

  • It is flexible
  • Provides an in-depth information
  • It is easy to organize and prepare
On the flip side, the interview has the following disadvantages
  • It is time-consuming. This is the reason why most companies preferred questionnaires to interviews in large job analysis exercises

2. Questionnaires: In this method, the job holder fills out questionnaires about the content of a job ( such as skills, knowledge, attitudes required to perform this job)

A questionnaire is a type of research tool that consists of a series of questions meant to collect information about a specific job.

Questionnaires are generally used when an organization wants to undertake a large job analysis exercise. 

The advantages of questionnaires are

  • It is an easy and convenient way of obtaining information about a large number of jobs
  • It is very economical, especially when large job analyses are involved
The disadvantages of questionnaires are
  • The result may inaccurate as many people find it difficult to express themselves in writing about their work
  • The result of a questionnaire depends on the ability of the job holder. The lesser his ability, the more inaccurate the q questionnaire becomes

3. Observation: This entails directly observing the job holder at work. It involves studying what the job holder does, how he does it, and how long he does it.

The advantage of observation is

  • It is highly suitable for routine administrative jobs
The disadvantage of observation includes:
  • It is time-consuming

Uses Of Job Analysis

1. Human resource planning: Job analysis is important to human resource planning as it helps determine the manpower needs of an organization, as well as spell out the duties, responsibilities, skills required to meet these manpower needs

2. Recruitment: By indicating the specific requirement of a job, It helps define the type of person to be recruited to fill job positions.

It also helps the organization in determining its source of recruitment, whether, it should recruit internally or externally

3. Selection: Job analysis always needs job specifications which essentially spell out the characteristics sought in an individual to perform a job effectively.

With this information, managers can easily select the right candidates

4. Training and development: Job analysis provides    managers with information on how best to tailor training programs to meet job holder needs

5. Performance appraisal: It helps in establishing standards against which the actual performance of an employee is measured

6. Health and safety: It allows an organization to easily identify health and safety risks associated with a particular job so that corrective measures can be taken to minimize and mitigate the impact of these hazards.

7. Onboarding: of course, managers must know a lot about a job before they orientate new employees. 

Job analysis is the means through which an employer obtains relevant information about a job. Indeed, there is no effective onboarding or orientation without job analysis

Criticism Of Job Analysis

1. Like most processes, It is time-consuming

2. It requires a lot of human effort

3. It is not always successful because mental abilities cannot be accurately observed

4. It sometimes lacks management support

5. It is affected by the bias of the job analyst.

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Job analysis is important to every organization, whether small or large organization. The right job analysis can help the organization achieve high performance

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