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Organizing is a managerial function that entails dividing tasks among people whose efforts must be coordinated in order to achieve certain objectives

It is the arranging of activities in an organization in such a way that they systematically contribute to the attainment of the organisational goal.

It is the management function that comes after planning and entails the synchronization and integration of the various resources ( human, financial and physical resources) of an organization.

Organizing entails arranging an organisational structure and coordinating its management practices and resources in the most effective and efficient pursuit of organisational objectives.

Organizing can also be defined as the systematic process of identifying the tasks to be done, who will do them, and how these tasks are will be managed and coordinated.

It can also refer to the way and manner in which the work of an organisation is arranged, distributed and coordinated among all members of the organization to achieve the organizational objectives

The main purpose of organizing is to group organisational actions and resources to get results.

Various people have defined the term ''organizing'' in various ways. Let's look at a few of them.

According to Chester Barnard, Organizing ''is the management function by which the concern is able to define the role positions, the job related and the coordination between authority and responsibility''.

To Henri Fayol, To organize a business is to provide it with everything (raw materials, tools, capital and personal ) useful for its functioning. 

In George Terry view, organizing as ''the establishing of effective authority relationships among selected work, persons, and workplaces for the group to work together efficiently''

Koontz and O'Donnell defined organizing as ''the establishment of the authority and responsibility relationships with provisions for coordinations between them, both vertically and horizontally in the enterprise structure"

According to Louis Allen "Organizing is the process of identifying and grouping work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationship to enable people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives.”

Organizing is the backbone of management because it forms the structure upon which the whole structure of management is built.

Importance Of Organizing

As a management function, organizing is important for the following reasons:

1. Optimal resources allocation: Organizing ensures that jobs are properly allocated in the organization.

It creates job fit among employees of an organization, which can help eliminate confusion, duplication of effort, all of which can lead to resource wastage.

2. Facilitates effective communication: Organizing allows for effective communication among the various department of an organization.

This is because organizing defines how different departments are interrelated and specifies the mode of communication among members of an organization.

3.  Assigns activities with appropriate authority:  Organizing establishes organizational structures that ensure that each employee is assigned a specified task.

Organizing is also concerned with determining the authority and responsibility relationships among the members of an organization.

4. Harmonizes objectives: Every organization is created to achieve certain objectives.

Organizing is a management function that helps an organization achieve its overall objective.

Employers' aspirations are aligned with the organizational objectives through organizing.

It directs employee goals toward accomplishing organizational objectives.

5. Benefits of specialization: One of the fundamental concepts in organizing is a division of work

The dividing of works helps create specialization among various units of the organization by putting the right man for the right job.

6. Clarifies working relationships: Organizing helps to define the job of each member of the organization by creating an organizational structure.

This clarity in working relationships can aid in achieving the proper balance of responsibility and authority in a company.

7. Enhances coordination: Organizing is a means of creating coordination among the various sub-unit of the organization.

It creates a clear-cut relationship among the various activities of the organization and various positions in the organization

It creates a better understanding of the authority and responsibility relationship in the organisation.

All of these are required for better communication.

8. Effective administration: Organizing creates an organizational structure, which clarifies the working connections among all members of the organization.

This clarity of working relationship is required for effective administration.

9. Necessary for growth: The efficiency and smoothness with which a company is run determine its growth.

Organizational growth is facilitated by well-defined roles and responsibilities among distinct sub-units.

Because all of this can be accomplished through the organization, the organization aids in organizational growth.

Principles Of Organizing

As the second function of management, organizing is characterized by the following principles

1. Principles of specialization: Each member of the organization should be assigned one specific task and should continue to do the same work so that he gain the necessary expertise. 

This helps in increasing productivity and efficiency

2.  Span of control: Span of control is the number of subordinates who are accountable to a superior.

According to this principle, the number of subordinates of a superior should be such that he can handle, supervise and control them effectively.

3. Principle of unity of command: The unity of command means that a subordinate should be accountable to only one superior.

There is likely to be conflict and confusion if a subordinate has more than one superior, especially if the subordinates receive contradicting orders from his multiple superiors.

To avoid this scenario, the principle of unity of command states that each subordinate should report to only one superior.

4.  Delegation of authority: For effective organization, the authority must be delegated.

In management, da delegation of authority is the process through which managers allocate authority to subordinates who report to them.

For delegation of authority to be effective, superiors should ensure that subordinates, who are allocated authority are also held responsible.

5. Principle of scalar chain: Scalar chain is a chain of command which flows from top to bottom.

The principle of scalar chain requires that there should always be a scalar chain in place. 

This guarantees that no functions are duplicated and that communication within the company is effective. 


6. Unity of objectives: Aside from unity of command, Organizing should ensure that the whole organization are aiming towards a common objective.

Organizing should specify the objectives of each department, unit, and individual in the organization, all of which must be harmonized in order to facilitate the achievement of the organization's goals.

7. Principle of division of works: For organizing to be effective, work must be divided among individuals and departments to ensure that effort and attention are focused on a special portion of the work.

This ensures accountability and efficiency in management

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