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Planning can be defined as the systematic process of setting objectives and deciding on the best course of action to follow to achieve these objectives.

It is the process of deciding in advance what to do, when to do it and how to do it.

However, certain factors hinder planning and make planning ineffective. These factors are collectively called barriers to effective planning.

Barriers to planning are factors or forces that can hinder the successful implementation of plans.

The following are some barriers to effective planning:

1. Inadequate information: Planning is based on the most up-to-date information about the future.

So, if this information is inaccurate or inadequate, this can hinder effective planning.

Moreover, there is the tendency of managers to base planning decisions on experience rather than expectations of the future.

2. Opposition to planning: Opposition to planning from external stakeholders such as customers or the general public can make it difficult to implement a plan.

3. High cost of planning: Planning costs may be too exorbitant for an organisation to bear.

It's possible that the organization doesn't have enough money to fund such plans.

4. Dynamic business environment: The nature of the business environment is another factor that can bar effective planning.

A rapidly changing environment makes it difficult for planning to succeed because plans make an organization too rigid to accommodate changes in its business environment.

5. Impractical plans: Impractical plans do not have any positive effect on business success.

This is because unworkable plans cannot be used as the basis for managerial decision-making.

6. Lack of human consideration: Plans that are made with little or no regard for the human elements of the organization are more likely to fail.

This is because plans are carried out by humans, and if they do not account for human welfare, they are unlikely to be carried out properly.

7. Lack of commitment: The inability of managers and/or subordinates to fully commit to plans made in an organization is yet another factor that can mar planning.

If managers and/or subordinates do not commit to the plans made, there is every tendency that such plans will not be carried out properly.

8. Non-involvement of subordinates:  Non-involvement of subordinates in the planning process, as well as poor communication within the organization, can impede planning.

Overcoming The Barriers To Effective Planning Or Conditions Necessary For Effective Planning

1. Clearly define objectives: To avoid ambiguity in organizational activities, the organization's objectives must be clearly defined.

2. Fact-based planning: Planning should be based on facts, which should be accurate and timely.

Furthermore, planning should not only be based on managers experience alone but on future predictions 

3. It Should be time-bound: Planning should establish a relevant time frame for the evaluation of performance.

This guarantees that an effective control mechanism is in place to assist in the correction of deviations from the plan.

4. Simplicity: Simple management planning efforts are likely to be more cost-effective than more elaborate ones

Therefore, simple planning should be advocated to help reduce the high cost associated with planning 

5. Flexible planning: In addition to being simple, Planning should be flexible to accommodate environmental changes.

Similarly, an organizational climate should be created that encourages employees to embrace changes brought about by planning.

6. Encourage participation: The active participation of subordinates and managers should be encouraged to provide incentives for supporting the plans.

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7. Training: Capacity building training and education of managers and subordinates in  the planning process should be a top priority 

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