8 PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION

There are, at least, eight principles of organization, namely:

1. The principle of objective 

2. The principle of authority and responsibility

3. Principle of scalar chain

4. The principle of span of control 

5. The principle of specialization 

6. The principle of coordination 

7. The principle of definition

8. Principle of unity of command

Principle of objective

This means that an organization should have an objective and that all of its departments should work together to achieve that objective.

This ensures that there are no conflicting objectives for each department of the organization.

Principle of authority and responsibility

This means authority and responsibility should be balanced in the organization

That is, the right to complete a task must be balanced with the obligation to do so to the best of one's ability.

This implies that individuals should be given the authority to get work done.

Although the authority of a work may be delegated, the responsibility for the performance of the work cannot be delegated.

Responsibility can only be shared, not delegated.

Indeed, whenever a superior delegate a task to subordinates, he has the ultimate responsibility to ensure that the task is completed, while the subordinates have the operating responsibility to complete the task to the best of/her ability. 

Therefore, the superior shares responsibility for the performance of the job delegated to subordinates.

Principle of scalar chain

This is a prerequisite for the organization's effective and efficient management

The principle means an organization should have a pyramid organizational structure.

That is, supervisors should be arranged vertically, starting at the top to the bottom level.

Principle of the span of control

The span of control may be defined as the number of subordinates that a superior can successfully supervise.

The span of control principle states that an organization's structure should be such that the number of subordinates under a supervisor's supervision is proportional to the number of subordinates that he can successfully control.

When the span of control is disproportionate, it hurts worker productivity due to sluggish communication with the supervisor. 

In essence, the principle of span of control state that a supervisor should control the optimum number of subordinates at a time.

This optimum number, according to Urwick, is five to six.

Principle of specialization

This principle says that the organisation should be organized in such a way each employee is assigned duties based on their skills and credentials.

Also, each member of the organization should be allowed to continue doing the same job so that he gains expertise and specializes in his work.

This will help in increasing the productivity of each organizational member.

Principle of coordination

This is an important principle of management.

According to this principle, there should be harmonious functioning of different parts of the organization.

Coordination ensures that an organization's numerous actions are synced to achieve the organization's objectives.

Principle of definition

According to this principle, the contents, duties, authority and responsibility of each position should be clearly defined in writing and communicated to all those concerned.

Furthermore, the relationships between various departments and positions in the organization should be clearly defined to make the work efficient and eliminate ambiguity 

Principles of unity of command

According to this principle, a subordinate should be answerable to only one superior.

There may be chaos and confusion if a subordinate is answerable to many superiors, especially if the subordinate gets contradictory commands from his many superiors

Lastly, unity of command also implied that the command should be from top to bottom and not the other way round.

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