Division of labour is the process of breaking down work into smaller tasks so that each task can be completed by an expert or specialist 

It can be defined as the division of a productive process into smaller tasks so that each task can be completed by an expert.

It entails the segmentation of tasks, with each employee or professional handling a different task.

Division of labour usually results in specialization or a situation where a worker specializes in producing a good or part of the well such that he gain necessary expertise.

Advantages of the division of labour

1. Increases productivity: Division of labour increases the output per worker.

To put it another way, it enables more output to be produced with the same amount of labour or the same output to be produced with less labour.

Division of labour increases productivity because a person doing the same work every time will gain enough expertise over time to perform the job more quickly and efficiently 

2. Mass production: The division of labour allows for a greater volume of goods and services to be produced by increasing productivity.

3. It reduces costs: Division of labour improves worker efficiency by eliminating wasteful duplication of functions.

This guarantees that production costs are kept low.

Furthermore, economies of scale achieved from large-scale production lower production costs.

4. Increases cooperation: In the division of labour, different people combine to produce goods as one person's input is another person's output.

This improves cooperation among workers and fosters teamwork among workers.

5. Saves time and energy: Rather than one person performing the whole production tasks, tasks are divided among several people and departments in the division of labour

This saves time and energy that would otherwise be wasted if the task were completed by a single individual.

More so, as a person continue to perform the same job over time, he becomes a specialist at performing the job even more quickly.

6. Division of labour results in the specialization: The division of labour among people allows a person to repeat the same task over and over again, resulting in specialization in one area of production 

If a worker continues to perform the same task over and over again, he will gain more expertise to perform the joke b more effectively and efficiently.

Disadvantages of the division of labour

1. It may lead to monotony: Division of labour means that workers do the same task repeatedly.

If workers continue to do the same job over a long period, they may lose interest in the task which will ultimately result in a decrease in productivity.

2. Reduction in the mobility of labour: When a worker does the same job again and over again, he becomes so accustomed to it that he may be unable to perform another job.

3. Division create interdependence: Division of labour result in increased dependence between individuals, firms, industries and countries.

This is because work divided between different people required the activity contribution of all participants to be contributed

Failure of one link (or department) in the production process may put the whole production on hold or may cause a breakdown in production

That is, if a particular production unit goes on strike, the whole production may be affected.

4. Decline in craftsmanship and creativity: The constant usage of machines may damper the worker's initiative and reduce their creativity

5. Application of division of labour is limited: Some jobs do not require division of labour. Barbing is an example of Jobs that may not require division of labour as multiple people cannot barb the head of the same person at the same time

Therefore, the application of division of labour is limited and varied from industry to industry.

It should be noted that the extent to which division of labour is applied is dependent on the scale of production.

If the scale of production is low, the application of division of labour will likely be limited.

If the scale of production is large, the application of division of labour will be increased.

6. It may lead to unemployment: if the specialist loses his job, he may not be able to find a similar job immediately, thereby resulting in unemployment

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