DEFINITIONS OF MANAGEMENT BY DIFFERENT AUTHORS

Earlier, I defined management as the utilization of the resources of an organization in the most efficient and effective pursuit of organizational goals.

However, management authors and scientists have defined management in terms of their own words.

In this post, we will enumerate some of the best definitions of management in this post.

According to George Terry, "Management Is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling; utilizing in each both science and art, and followed in order to accomplish pre-determined objectives"

The Father of Scientific management, Fredrick Winslow Taylor has this to say of management: "Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and the cheapest may"

Peter Drucker, who is sometimes referred to as the father of MBO, defined Management, as "the process by means of which the purpose and objectives of a particular human group are determined, clarified and effectuated"

Perhaps, the most popular and simplest definition of Management was given by Mary Parker Follett. According to her, "Management is the art of getting things done through people".

Management, says Edward Francis Leopold Brech, "is concerned with seeing that the job gets done, it tasks all centre that on planning and guiding the operations to it are going on the enterprise".

"Management is the task of Manager to establish and maintain an internal environment in which people working together in groups can perform effectively and efficiently towards the attainment of group goals", writes Koontz and O’ Donnell.

To quote Henry Fayol, "To manage is "to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control".

To Ordway Tead, "Management is the process and agency which directs and guides the operations of an organisation in the realisation of established aims".

In Joseph Massie View, "Management process by which a co-operative group directs action towards common goals".

Lawrence Asa Appley,  president of American Management Association (AMA) from 1946-1968, gave a succinct definition of Management. According to him, "Management is the accomplish­ment of results through the efforts of other people".

John Mee Comprehensively defined management as "art of securing maximum result with minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity for the employer and employee, and give the public the best possible service".

"Management is a kind of coordination activity between all the social process and man, machine, material, money and method; in such a way as to achieve the stated goals" explained Prof. S.B. Srivastava.

James Lundy sees Management "as principally a task of planning, coordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards specific objectives".

Management, according to Dalton McFarland, "is the process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organizations through systematic, coordinated and cooperative human effort".

"Management is the force which leads, guides and directs an organisation in the accomplishment of a pre-determined object", writes J.N. Schulze.

The duo of E. Peterson and E.G Plowman gave a simple and concise definition of management. According to them, "Management is a technique by means of which the purpose and objectives of a particular human group are determined, classified and effectuated"

In the words of James A.E. Stone, "Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the efforts of organization members and using all other organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goals".

"Management is that function of an enterprise which concerns itself with the direction and control of the various activities to attain the business objectives", writes Williams Spriegel.

To quote Kimball and Kimball, "Management embraces all duties and functions that pertain to the initiation of an enterprise, its financing, the establishment of all major policies, the provision of all necessary equipment, the outlining of the general form of organisation under which the enterprise is to operate and the selection of the principal officers. The group of officials in primary control of an enterprise is referred to as management".

Theo Haimann still defined Management as "the function of getting things done through people and directing the efforts of individuals towards a common objective."

Management, wrote Sisks, "is the process of working of with and other to effectively achieve organizational objectives by efficiently using limited resources in changing environment."

In the words of James D. Mooney and Alan C. Reiley, "Management is the art of directing and inspiring people"

According to Theo Haimann and William Scott, "Management is a social and technical process which utilizes, resources, influences, human action and facilitates changes in order to accomplish organizational goals".

Koontz and Weihrech say that "Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims".

The duo of Terry and Franklin defined "Management is a distinct process consisting of activities planning, organising, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish stated objectives with the use of human beings and other resources".

In the words of Newman, Summer and Warren, "The job of management is to make cooperative endeavour to function properly. A manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources".

A more elaborate definition was given by Barry M.Richman. According to him, "Management entails the coordination of human and material resources towards the achievement of organizational objectives as well as the organization of the productive functions essential for achieving stated or accepted economic goals.".

To Keith and Gubellini, "Management is the force that integrates men and physical plant into an effective operating unit".

READ ALSO: 4 MAJOR MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

From the foregoing definition, we can pinpoint the following:

1. Management is a process, not a one-time event.

2. Management deals with people and resources.

3. The purpose of management is to achieve pre-determined goals efficiently and also effectively.

4. Management is both art and science.

5. There are different functions of management including planning, organizing, leading, directing, coordinating etc.

6. Management is based on teamwork.

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