DEFINITIONS OF PLANNING BY DIFFERENT AUTHORS

The term "planning" has been defined differently by various management scholars.

In this post, we are going to be enumerating some of the best definitions of planning.

According to Theo Haimann, "Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done".

In the words of Koontz and O'Donnell, "Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do when to do it, and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap from ‘where we are’ to ‘where we want to go" 

Renowned management scholar George Terry viewed planning as "the selection and relating of facts and the making and using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formulation of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired results".

To James L. Pierce, "Planning describes the construction of an operating programme, comprehensive enough to cover all phases of operations and detailed enough that specific attention may be given to its fulfilment in controllable segments”.

Planning was comprehensively defined by McFarland as "a concept of executive action that embodies the skills of anticipating, influencing and controlling the nature and direction of change".

To quote Henry Fayol, "The plan of action is, at one and the same time the result envisaged, the line of action to be followed the stages to go through and the methods to use."

In Robert Kreitner's view, "Planning is the process of coping with uncertainty by formulating future course of action to achieve specified results"

A simpler definition was given by Ricky W. Griffin. According to him, "planning is setting an organization’s goals and deciding how best to achieve them".

Hart sees planning as " the determination in advance of a line of action by which certain results are to be achieved"

Peter Drucker, who popularized the concept of 'management by objectives, had this to say on planning: "planning is the continuous process of making present entrepreneurial decisions systematically and with best possible knowledge their futurity, organizing systematically the efforts needed to carry out these decisions and measuring the results of these decisions against the expectation through organized systematic feedback."

To Mitchell, "Planning is the process of developing a strategy to achieve desired objectives, solve problems and facilitate actions

To quote Louis Allen, "Management planning involves the development of forecasts, objectives, policies, programmes, procedures, schedules and budgets"

Planning, according to Omran, is the process by which an individual or organization decides in advance on some future course of action

Certo wrote that "Planning is the process of determining how the organization can get where it wants to go "

From the foregoing definition, we can conclude that management can best be defined as the process of determining the objectives of the organization and deciding in advance the course of action to take to achieve the objectives. 

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