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According to Henry Fayol, there are 5 main functions of management, namely; planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding and controlling.

Luther Gullick gave 7 functions of management, namely; Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting.

However, there are four subsidiary functions of management, namely; innovation, decision-making, representation, and communication.

1. Innovation: Ernest Dale was the first person to identify innovation as a separate function of management.

Innovation is a function of management that involves preparing the organization's staff to face changes arising from its business operations.

It entails implementing new systems, practices, techniques, and methods in the production of goods and services, as well as in the general workplace.

The constantly evolving corporate environment in which we currently find ourselves has increased the need for innovative managers even more.

2. Decision-making: This is one of the most important functions of management because all managers must make decisions on the best course of action to follow, how to achieve the organizational goals, and how to allocate resources to accomplish those goals.

Decision-making, as a management function, involves selecting the best course of action from a range of options.

Managers have to make decisions daily about whether or not to take a certain course of action.

The success of management in an organization is indeed determined by the manager's ability to make the right decision.

3. Representation: Ernest Dale has also regarded representation as a separate function of management

Every manager represents his organization to some extent.

Managers act as the company's representatives while dealing with clients, financial institutions, the government, and other stakeholders.

As such, managers must keep good relationships with external stakeholders to advance the organizational objectives among the stakeholders.

4. Communication: This is yet another important subsidiary function of management.

Communication is a managerial function that involves conveying information, objectives, instructions to top-level managers, lower-level managers, and external stakeholders.

It involves transmitting instructions to non-managerial workers as well as low-level managers.

Middle-level managers also report to senior managers on the status of activities in the departments through communication

Because management primarily involves people, who need to be given instructions and kept updated on events and activities within the firm, every manager must communicate effectively.

To summarize, there are four subsidiary functions of management: decision-making, communication, representation and innovation.

Contrary to popular belief, motivation is not a subsidiary function of management. Rather motivation is one of the main functions of management.

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