12 CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT

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Management is the effective and efficient use of an organization's resources in the achievement of organizational objectives.

The twelve characteristics of management are goal oriented, pervasive, group activity, continuous, dynamic, intangible, derived demand, social process, science and art, profession, decision making, and integrative force.

1. Goal oriented: Management is a goal oriented and purposeful activity.

Management coordinate individual efforts and direct them towards toward achieving the organization's objectives

Management is a goal-oriented activity since it aims to achieve the pre-established objectives of the organization.

2. Pervasive: Every organization needs management, which is why it is pervasive.

Management is necessary as long as there is a group of individuals striving to achieve a goal.

The pervasiveness of management comes from the fact that it is universal and needed whenever there is an organization of people.

Without management, an organization would be in chaos and confusion. Any organization, no matter how big or little, needs management.

It is because of the pervasiveness of management that it is often said that "there is no organization without management".

3. Group activity: Management is a group activity because organizations typically consist of a group of people.

In fact, management only exists when there is a group effort to achieve an objective.

Management is not needed when only one person is working to achieve a goal.

Management is only necessary when collective efforts are directed at achieving an objective

4. Continuous: Management is a process that never ends. It is continuous.

Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and managing are all managerial tasks that will be carried out for as long as the organization exists.

Management only comes to an end when the organization cease to exist. Management is, therefore, continuous

5. Dynamic: Management is dynamic because every organization must adjust to environmental changes.

Management is dynamic so as to accommodate changes in plans, objectives, policies, and activities caused by changes in the external environment.

The management activities are heavily Influenced by the constantly changing business environment, so management needs to be dynamic to keep up with any changes.

6. Intangible: Management is not tangible as it cannot be seen or touched.

But only the level of structure, neatness, and coordination inside the organization can demonstrate the presence of successful management.

The presence of management is typically seen in the increased in productivity and profit in the organization

7. Derived demand: The demand for management is derived because management is not demanded for its own sake.

It is only demanded for the organizational objectives that can be attained through it.

8. Social process: Because it involves people, management is regarded as a social process.

Even though people are just one of the many resources that can be available to an organization, management must also deals with people.

Management is not only concerned with the management of financial resources or physical resources. It is also concerned with the management of people.

This is the reason why Mary Parker Follett defined Management as "the art of getting things done through people". 

The people element of management ensures that management is dynamic to response to the demand of people in the organization.

9. Science and art: Management is both an art and science.

Management is an art because it involves the application of knowledge and general principles.

Management is also a science because it embodies a systematic body of knowledge based on some universally applicable principles

10. Profession: Management is considered a profession because it has all characteristics of a profession.

Management is a profession with a specialized body of knowledge, learnable skills, and a set of ethical standards that all management practitioners are expected to uphold.

Additionally, Management has a representatives organization which is in charge of regulating the management profession.

11. Decision-making: This is yet another important characteristics of management.

There are always many courses of action that an organization might take to attain its purpose, therefore management involves making decisions.

Management involves making decision on the most efficient and effective course of action to be taken to achieve the overall objectives of the organization.

Decision making is also crucial for managing the operation and activities of the organization.

The managerial staff's decisions determine whether the organization will succeed or fail.

As a result, management involves making decisions.

12. Integrative Force: Management is an integrative force because it brings together all of an organization's resources to achieve its goals..

Without management, these resources won't be integrated and won't be able to help the organization accomplish its goals.

To ensure the organization runs smoothly, management align the individual goals with organization goals for the smooth working of the organization.

It acts as the unifying force between personal and organizational objectives.

To emphasize, the 12 characteristics of management are goal oriented, pervasive, group activity, continuous, dynamic, intangible, derived demand, social process, science and art, profession, decision making, and integrative force.

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